The hearing was told Mr Trump did not make a single call to national security staff or law enforcement during the chaotic scenes.
A "selfish desire to stay in power" was his motivation, the inquiry alleged during the House of Representatives select committee hearing.
Mr Trump is said to have watched coverage of the riot on Fox News in the White House's private dining room for more than two-and-a-half hours.
Elaine Luria, a Virginia Democrat on the committee, said: "President Trump sat at his dining table and watched the attack on television while his senior-most staff, closest advisers and family members begged him to do what is expected of any American president."
January 6 hearing in the House of Representatives POOL
Former US President Donald Trump ERIN SIEGAL
The lawmaker also said the chief White House photographer wanted to take pictures, but was told not to.
The panel, looking to build a case that Mr Trump acted illegally, is drawing a timeline of the Republican's activities on January 6.
The billionaire could face charges on such counts as conspiracy to defraud the American people, witness tampering or obstructing an official proceeding of Congress.
Any potential prosecution would be led by the Department of Justice.
The committee also aired a previously unseen video outtake of Mr Trump on January 7 repudiating the violence at the Capitol of the day before.
During the recording, Mr Trump says: "I don't want to say the election is over."
Polling in the US suggests the hearings are having little impact on Mr Trump's personal popularity among Republican voters.
A recent survey by PBS found that just one in five party members think the 76-year-old should face prosecution, while more than half would like to see him as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 2024.
This comes as Joe Biden's personal approval rating has fallen to just 37 percent, lower than Mr Trump's at any point during his term in office.